George Antepim Pesewu, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Christian Adofo, Douglas Kwang, Michael Adetokunbo Olu-Taiwo, and Samuel Osei-Djarbeng


The use of animals and their products have over the years played enormous roles and served as efficient sources of new pharmaceuticals. The study evaluated the antibacterial activities of various solvent extracts of two species of millipede against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). Millipedes collected were categorized into 3 groups (Group 1 = Ophistreptus guineensis S. alone, Group 2 = Pachybolus ligulatus V. alone, Group 3 = mixture of the two species), and their products extracted using chloroform, ethanol, and distilled water. Dry extracts of the millipedes were tested against the bacteria using agar-well and paper-disc diffusion assays. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of the potent solvent extracts were also determined. The highest mean diameter of zones of inhibition (29 ± 0.07 mm) and (24 ± 0.15) mm against MSSA and MRSA were observed for the ethanol extracts of Group 3 (mixture of O. guineensis + P. ligulatus) by the agar well diffusion assay. MIC and MBC values ranging from 1.56-6.25 mg/ml and 6.25-25.0 mg/ml, for the ethanol extract of the Group 3 millipedes against MSSA and MRSA were found respectively. This study has shown that extracts of millipedes possess antibacterial substances that can be effective against MRSA in-vitro.

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