Livestock Production Systems Analysis: Review

Melkamu Yitbarek Bezabih, Gebreyohannes Berhane

Abstract


ABSTRACT This review was aimed at to assess the livestock production systems analysis in the tropics through critical review of scientific papers. Tropical continents have ample natural resources: livestock, land, human resources. Livestock plays multiple roles in the livelihoods of people in this region, especially the poor. There are five classes of livestock production systems based on agro ecological zone, animal type, function and their management. Climatic conditions determine the energy and nutrient metabolism of farm animals and have a major influence on livestock heath, behaviour, welfare and performance. Contrary livestock production contributors to environmental problems: leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation, water pollution and losses of biodiversity. Through the result of environmental impact assessment, climate risk-management action /mitigation/ should be taken to reduce the impacts of global warming and or climate change. Designing climate resilience green economy policy should be the first agenda of all the government of the nations to create the healthy environment for the life. Integration of livestock production systems increases the stability of the production of the farm and reduces risks for resource-poor households. Intensifications of the system and carrying out organic animal farming, increases animal productivity, due to better nutrition, health and housing management. Therefore measures such as sustainable intensification of the production system, payments for ecosystem services, income diversification, and market oriented production system, regulation of industrial systems and livestock product demand management could play a significant role in ensuring sustainable livestock production, livelihoods and environmental protection.


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