Effect of improved and traditional smoking on the storage life and nutritional quality of cat, croaker and sardine fishes.

Ezembu E. N., Onwuka G. I.


ABSTRACTThis study assessed the effect of improved and traditional smoking on the storage life and nutritional quality of cat, croaker and sardine. The experimental fishes were divided into two batches for smoking in improved and traditional kiln. The fish was stunned, eviscerated, cleaned, brined and smoked in either improved or traditional smoking kiln. The smoked fish from both traditional and improved smoking kiln were also divided into six groups for storage over a period of five weeks. Weekly samples were taken and analyzed. The proximate composition (Moisture, fat, protein, ash) and chemical analysis (Total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), trimethylamine (TMA) and thiobabutaric value (TBA)) were determine for fresh, smoked and stored smoked three fish species. The result of this study showed a general significant increase (P<0.05) in the proximate and chemical content of the three fish species smoked in the two smoking method used which could probably be due to product dehydration and oxidation respectively. The proximate contents of the fish species significantly decreased (P<0.05) over the storage period while the moisture content increased from; for smoked cat, croaker, sardine for improved and traditional kiln ranged from 10.23 to 11.28, 10.27 to 11.34%; 10.18 to 11.25, 10.26 to 11.27%; 10.40 to 11.01, 10.44 to 11.90% respectively at the end of 35 days of storage. There was general increase in the chemical factors over the period of storage but higher in traditional smoking. The traditional smoked sardine fish had the highest TVBN of 3.3 to 3.5 mgN/100g and PV of 3.46 to 3.61 meqO2/kg at the end of 35 days of storage. The general increase of TVBN over the storage period could be due to gradual degradation of the initial protein to more volatile products while PV could be due to oxidation of lipids. The value of FFA for the three fish species increased with the range of 0.25 to 0.38%. The highest value of trimethylamine obtained was from 2.15 to 2.57mg/100g and TBA from 0.04 – 0.13mg malonaldehyde/kg from traditionally smoked croaker fish at the 35 days of storage. The increase in TMA may be due to protein breakdown. Nevertheless, the spoilage factors were all within the acceptable limit, but indicated the beginning of spoilage. The study showed that smoking fish species with the improved kiln had a better nutrient retention and keeping quality than traditional smoking kiln.

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