Effect of improved and traditional smoking on the storage life and nutritional quality of cat, croaker and sardine fishes.

Ezembu E. N., Onwuka G. I.

Abstract


ABSTRACTThis study assessed the effect of improved and traditional smoking on the storage life and nutritional quality of cat, croaker and sardine. The experimental fishes were divided into two batches for smoking in improved and traditional kiln. The fish was stunned, eviscerated, cleaned, brined and smoked in either improved or traditional smoking kiln. The smoked fish from both traditional and improved smoking kiln were also divided into six groups for storage over a period of five weeks. Weekly samples were taken and analyzed. The proximate composition (Moisture, fat, protein, ash) and chemical analysis (Total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), trimethylamine (TMA) and thiobabutaric value (TBA)) were determine for fresh, smoked and stored smoked three fish species. The result of this study showed a general significant increase (P<0.05) in the proximate and chemical content of the three fish species smoked in the two smoking method used which could probably be due to product dehydration and oxidation respectively. The proximate contents of the fish species significantly decreased (P<0.05) over the storage period while the moisture content increased from; for smoked cat, croaker, sardine for improved and traditional kiln ranged from 10.23 to 11.28, 10.27 to 11.34%; 10.18 to 11.25, 10.26 to 11.27%; 10.40 to 11.01, 10.44 to 11.90% respectively at the end of 35 days of storage. There was general increase in the chemical factors over the period of storage but higher in traditional smoking. The traditional smoked sardine fish had the highest TVBN of 3.3 to 3.5 mgN/100g and PV of 3.46 to 3.61 meqO2/kg at the end of 35 days of storage. The general increase of TVBN over the storage period could be due to gradual degradation of the initial protein to more volatile products while PV could be due to oxidation of lipids. The value of FFA for the three fish species increased with the range of 0.25 to 0.38%. The highest value of trimethylamine obtained was from 2.15 to 2.57mg/100g and TBA from 0.04 – 0.13mg malonaldehyde/kg from traditionally smoked croaker fish at the 35 days of storage. The increase in TMA may be due to protein breakdown. Nevertheless, the spoilage factors were all within the acceptable limit, but indicated the beginning of spoilage. The study showed that smoking fish species with the improved kiln had a better nutrient retention and keeping quality than traditional smoking kiln.

Full Text:

PDF

References


[ 1 ] A.O.A.C (1980). Official methods of analysis of the association of analytical chemists Washington DC.

[ 2 ] A.O.A.C. (1990). Official methods of analysis, 15th ed.; Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Arlington, Virginia. 15th edition. Pp. 1298.

[ 3 ] Adebowale, B. A., Ogunjobi M. A. K., Olubamiwa, O., Olusola, Taiwo M. O. and Omidiran, V. A. (2012). Quality improvement and value addition of processed fish (Clarias gariepinus) using phenolic compounds in coffee pulp smoke. International research journal of Agriculture Science and Soil Science 2(13): 520-524.

[ 4 ] Adegunwa, M. O., Adebowale, A. A., Olisa, Z. G. and Bakare, H. A. (2013). Chemical and microbiological qualities of smoked herring (Sardinella eba, Valenciennes 1847) in Odeda Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Microbiology Research and Reviews, 1 (5): 085-087.

[ 5 ] Adeyemi, O. T., Osilesi, O. O., Onajobi, F., Adebawo, O. and Afolayan, A. J. (2013). Stability study of smoked fish, horse mackerel (Trachurus traichurus) by different methods and storage at room temperature. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 7 (6): 98-106.

[ 6 ] Akande, G. R. (1996). Post-harvest processing in Fisheries. A paper presented at training for officers of UNDP assisted programme on artisanal fisheries development, Ogun State at Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Lagos. pp. 1-20.

[ 7 ] Andrew, L., Stoll, W., Emanuel, S., Marlene, P., Freeman, M., Stephanie, R., Holly, A., Zboyan, Eli, D., Kimberly, K., Cress, M., Lauren, B., and Marangell, M. (1999). Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Bipolar Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry (American Medical Association) 56 (5): 407- 412.

[ 8 ] Azad Shah, A. K. M., Tokunaga, C., Kurihara, H. and Takahashi, K. (2009). Changes in lipids and their contribution to the taste of migaki-nishin (dried herring fillet) during drying. Food Chem., 115: 1011-1018.

[ 9 ] Bernardez, M.; Pastoriza, L.; Sampedro, G.; Herrera, J. J. R.; and Cabo, M. L. (2005). Modified method for the analysis of free fatty acids in fish. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry.

[ 10 ] Bilgin, F., Ünlüsayin, M., Izci, L. and Günlü, A. (2008). The Determination of the Shelf Life and Some Nutritional Components of Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) after Cold and Hot Smoking. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 32(1): 49-56.

[ 11 ] Bolaji, B. O. (2005). Performance evaluation of a simple solar dryer for food preservation. Book of Proceedings of 6th Annual Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, pp 8-13.

[ 12 ] Bouriga, N., Ben, I. H., Gammoudi, M., Faure, E. and Trabelsi, M. (2012). Effect of smoking-method on Biochemical and Microbiological Quality of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). American Journal of Food Technology, (7): 679-689.b

[ 13 ] Cakli, S., Kilinc, B., Dincer, T. and Tolasa, S. (2006). Comparison of the shelf lifes of map and vacuum packed hot smoked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Eur Food Res Technol (224): 19-26.

[ 14 ] Connel, J. J. (1990). Methods of assessing and selecting for quality. In: Control of fish quality (3rd Ed.), Fishing News Books. Oxford: pp. 122–150.

[ 15 ] Connell, J. J. (1995). Control of fish quality. Fishing News Books, Farnham, England. Pp.245.

[ 16 ] Conway, E. J. (1947). Microdiffusion Analysis and Volumetric error. Crosbylockwood and Sons Ltd. London, pp. 68.

[ 17 ] Daramola, J. A., Fasakin, E. A., and Adeparusi, E. O. (2007). Changes in Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Smoke-Dried Fish Species Stored At Ambient Temperature. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 7(6): 1684-5358.

[ 18 ] Drevon, C. A. (1989). Omega 3 fatty acids in health and disease. Fish, fats and your health. proceedings of the intern. Conference on fish lipids and their influence on human health. Suany Foundation, 6965 Svanybukt, Norway. Pp. 19-25.

[ 19 ] Egbal, O., Ahmed, H., Adm, T. and Kalthom, E. M. (2013). Investigating the quality changes of hot smoked Clarias Lazera at refrigerated temperature (5±10C). Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 1 (3): 27-32.

[ 20 ] Eyo, A. A. (1993). Traditional and Improved Fish Handling, Preservation and Processing Techniques. Paper Presented At National Workshop On Fish Processing Storage, Marketing And Utilization. Company, Philadelphia London.138, pp. 148 - 150, 164, 207.

[ 21 ] Eyo, A. A. (2001). Textbook on Fish Processing Technology in the Tropics. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, New Bussa: University of Ilorin Press, Nigeria. Pp. 8-18, 66-84, 153-188, 403.

[ 22 ] Göktepe, I. and Moody, M.W. (1998). Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of smoked catfish. Journal of Muscle Foods, (9): 375–389.

[ 23 ] Goulas, A. E. and Kontominas, M. G. (2005). Effect of Salting And Smoking Method On The Keeping Quality Of Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Biochemical And Sensory Attributes.

[ 24 ] Horner, W. F. A. (1992). Preservation of Fish by curing: Fish Processing Technology. Chapman and Hall, London.

[ 25 ] Huss, H. M. (1988). Fresh Fish Quality And Quality Changes. FAO/DANIDA Training Programme on Fish Technology and Quality Control. FAO Fisheries Series. 29, pp. 132.

[ 26 ] Kezban, C. and Nuray, K. (2003). Storage stability of beef low-fat frankfurters formulated with carrageenan or carrageenan with pectin. Meat science, 64; 207-214.

[ 27 ] Kolsarıcı, N. and Özkaya, O. (1998). Effect of smoking methods of shelf-life of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., (22): 273–284.

[ 28 ] Koral, S., Kose, S. and Tufan, B, (2010). Investigating the quality changes of raw and hot smoked garfish (Belone belone euxini, Gunther, 1866) at ambient and refrigerated temperatures. Turk. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., (9): 53-58.

[ 29 ] Kris-Etherton, Penney, M., William, S., Harris, Lawrence, J., and Appel. (2002). Fishconsumption, fish oil, omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106 (21): 2747-2757.

[ 30 ] Kumolu-Johnson, C. A. and Ndimele, P. E. (2001). Effect of salting, brining and sundrying on the shelf-life of Clarias gariepinus (LACEPEDE). J. Res. Rev. in Sci. (2): 21-25.

[ 31 ] Kumolu-Johnson, C. A., Aladetohun, N. F., and Ndimele, P. E. (2010). The effect of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of Clarias gariepinus (BURCELL 1822). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (1): 073-076

[ 32 ] Kumolu-Johnson, C. A., Aladetohun, N. F., and Ndimele, P. E. (2009). The effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of Clarias gariepinus (LACEPEDE). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (1): 073-076.

[ 33 ] Naereh, B. (2004). Preliminary observations on Nutritional and Microbiological changes of hot and cold smoked trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). United Nations University final project. Fisheries Training Programme.

[ 34 ] Odo, F. O and Ishiwu, C. N. (1999). Experiment procedures for food and water analysis, computer edge publishers, Nigeria, pp. 3-8, 27, 30-31, 35-36, 74, 90.

[ 35 ] Onwuka, G. I. (2005). Food analysis and instrumentation, theory and practice. Naphthali prints, pp. 115-118.

[ 36 ] Pearson, D. (1976). Chemical Analysis of foods. Churchill Livingstone, London, 8th Edition, pp. 504.

[ 37 ] Practical manual on Food Technology, Nutrition and Dietetics for schools and industries (2004). Department of Food Technology Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, published by National Science and Technology forum, Kaduna Polytechnic, pp. 43-44, 224-226.

[ 38 ] Salan, E., Juliana, A. G. and Marila, O. (2006) Use of smoking to add value to salmonel trout. Braz. Arch Biol. Technol 49(1): 57-62.

[ 39 ] Serkan, K., Sevim, K. and Bekir, T. (2008). Investigating the Quality Changes of Raw and Hot Smoked Garfish (Belone belone euxini, Günther, 1866) at Ambient and Refrigerated Temperatures. Turkish J. Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. (9): 53-58.

[ 40 ] Smith, J. G. M., Hardy, R., MacDonald, I. and Templeton, J. (1980). The storage of herring (Clupea harengus) In ice, refrigerated sea water and at ambient temperature. Chemical and sensory assessment. J. Sci. Food Agric. (31): 375-385.

[ 41 ] Stansby, M. E. (1982). Properties of fish oils and their application to handling of fish and to nutritional and industrial use. In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products. (Martin, R. E.; Flick G. J.; Hebard, C. E. and Ward; D. R. Eds.) Avi Publishing Co., Westport, CT. pp. 75-92.

[ 42 ] Vasiliadou, S., Ambrosiadis, I., Vareltzis, K., Fletouris, D. and Gavriilidou, I. (2005). Effect of Smoking On Quality Parameters Of Farmed Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and Sensory Attributes Of The Smoked Product. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 221, 232-236.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN

2349-4425 (Online)

Email

editor@yloop.in

Copyright 2010-2014 © All rights reserved by Yellow Loop